काळ उपयोग व रचना
Simple Present Tense
सहज सवयीने व नेहमी घडणारी क्रिया वैश्विक सत्य व्यक्त करण्यासाठी हा काळ वापरतात( Simple Present Tense is used to indicate frequent occurring , present habitual action, universal truth and truth forever)
- We go to college to get knowledge.
- I watch a T. V. serial everyday.
- Sneha reads this blog regularly.
- The earth revolves around the sun.
- The sun sets in the west.
- I type a letter.
- We type letters.
- You type a letter.
- You type letters.
- He types a letter.
- She types a letter.
- They type letters.
- It saves typed letters.
- Manoj types a letter.
- People type letters.
Present Continuous Tense
वर्तमान स्थितीत चालु असणारी क्रिया व्यक्त करण्यासाठी हा काळ वापरतात(Present Continuous Tense is used to indicate the action which began some time ago , is going on and will continue for some more time.)
- I am typing an e-mail now.
- We are creating a message at present.
- They are going to Nagpur.
- They are searching a treasure.
- He is copying the notes.
- She is making cake.
- It is raining heavily.
- Manisha is running a race.
Present Perfect Tense
नुकतीच पुर्ण झालेली क्रिया व्यक्त करण्यासाठी तसेच भुतकाळात घड्लेल्य घट्नेचा परिणाम वर्तंमानस्थीतीत कायम रहात असल्यास हा काळ वापरतात(Present Perfect Tense is used to indicate the just occurred action and the one which occurred in the past but its effect continues to the present time.) Structure: sub+have/has+v3+obj/Complement
- I have drawn a circle just now
- She has completed her homework right now.
- We have passed S.S.C.
- Kapil Dev has played Cricket for 15 years.
- How long have you known him?
- The workers have completed their work in time.
- Rajesh has won the best outgoing student award.
Present Perfect Continuous Tense
वर्तमान काळात दिर्घकाळ चालु असलेली क्रीया व्यक्त करण्यासाठी हा काळ वापरतात Structure: sub+have/has+ been +v-ing+obj
- I have been learning English for 6 years.
- I have been living in Gadchandur since 1994.
- We have been making kites for 8 hours.
- He has been working as a clerk.
- It has been grazing since morning.
- They have been ploughing the land for two days.
- Ramesh Patil has been teaching grammar for 24 years at Mahatma Gandhi Vidyalaya.
- She has been traveling through Europe since February.
- He has been working with our company for the last five years.
- Mrs. Smita Chitade has been teaching Maths in Mahatma Gandhi Jr. College since 1989.
Simple Past Tense
घडून गेलेली क्रिया व्यक्त करण्यासाठि हा काळ वापरतात.
- Shahajahan built the Tajmahal in memory of Mumtaj.
- Columbus discovered America.
- India got freedom in 1947.
- Valmiki wrote the Ramayan.
- She went to Kolkata yesterday.
Structure: Sub + V2 + Obj / complement.
- I took decision.
- We played cricket.
- You came late.
- He saw a tiger.
- She understood her mother very well.
- It was found.(Passive Voice)
- They read a story.
- Mayank ate oranges.
- SMS was sent by him.(Passive Voice) Struc: obj+to be+v3+by+sub.
- He did not complete his assignments.(Negative)Stru: sub+H.V. +not+ v1 + obj.
- Why did she deny that proposal? (Interrogative)Stru:Wh-word+H.V. +sub+v1+obj?
Past Continuous Tense
भुतकाळात एका विशीष्ट वेळी चालु असलेली क्रिया व्यक्त करण्यासाठी हा काळ वापरतात I was reading a newspaper when the phone rang. चालु असलेली क्रिया reading विशीष्ट वेळ phone rang. वरिल वाक्यात simple past आणि past continuous चे combination वापरलेले आहे. She was reading the Ramayan in the morning. Structure: Sub +was/were+ V-ing + Obj / complement.
- I was playing Kho-Kho.
- We were watching T.V. serial.
- You were crossing the road.
- He was swimming in the river.
- She was making chapatis in the kitchen.
- They were crossing the flooded water.
- A car was being driven by him.(Passive voice)
- A prisoner was being taken away.(Passive voice)
Past Perfect Tense
भुतकाळात घडलेल्या दोन घटनांपैकि जी घटना प्रथम घड्लेलि असते ती Past Perfect Tense मध्ये लिहीतात व नंतर घडलेली घटना Simple Past Tense मध्ये लिहीतात . Mother had finished cooking when father entered the kitchen.प्रथम घड्लेलि क्रिया had finished cooking नंतर घडलेली घटना father entered the kitchen Structure: Sub +had + V3 + obj/Compl.
- I had swept the room.
- He had played chess.
- She had learned a lesson.
- They had been praised by the governor. (Passive Voice)
- Trees had been cut. (Passive Voice)
Simple Future Tense
भविष्यात क्रिया घडेल असा भाव व्यक्त करण्यासाठी हा काळ वापरतात.
- I will pass H.S.S.C next year.
- They will go to Mumbai by next train.
Structure: Sub + shall/will + V1 + obj/Compl.
- We shall learn computer operating.
- He will win the Chess Championship.
- She will go to Nagpur tomorrow.
- They will arrive here by next plane.
- You will get success if you work hard. A story will be written by him. (Passive voice)
Future Continuous Tense
भविष्यात एखादि क्रिया चालु असेल अशी कल्पना व्यक्त करण्यासाठी हा काळ वापरतात.
- We will be learning sums in the school tomorrow.
- She will be drawing rangoli in the morning.
Structure: Sub + shall/will +be+ V-ing + obj/Compl.
- I shall be drawing a big circle.
- We shall be painting a wall.
- He will be ploughing a field.
- She will be rolling out chapatis.
- They will be singing songs.
Future Perfect Tense.
भविष्यात एका विशिष्ट वेळी एखादी क्रिया पुर्ण झालेली असेल असा भाव व्यक्त करण्यासाठी हा काळ वापरतात.
- India will have become superpower by the year 2020.
- She will have reached Kolhapur by this time tomorrow.
Structure: Sub + shall/will +have+ V3 + obj/Compl.
- You will have passed S.S.C. by June 2016.
- You will have passed H.S.S.C. by June 2016.
- You will have got degree by the year 2020.
- You will have secured a job by the year 2022.
- Our Headmaster will have retired by July 2016.
- Giridhar Bobade will have become Headmaster by the year 2017.
Observe the use of Simple Future Tense and Future Perfect Tense
- I will have finished my belongings when the taxi will arrive.
- John will have read Steve Job’s biography before the film on it will release.
- Students will have completed the assignment by the time term will end.
- By the time the course will conclude students will have learned almost everything about English.
Observe the use of Simple Past Tense and Past Perfect Tense
Yesterday, after my friend had left, I started writing a letter. I had written only one sentence when I heard the postman calling me. He brought me a parcel. It was a book, which I had ordered from a shop in Mumbai. The postman asked me to sign a receipt and when I had signed it, he gave me the book and left. Then I sat down to read the book. It was so interesting that I read it very quickly. When my friend returned that evening, I had finished reading the book. He had read the book the previous week, and we sat and talked till midnight, after we had eaten dinner.
- I was late. The meeting had started an hour ago.
- They did not come, even though we had sent them a special invitation.
- It was a good story, but I had heard it before.
- As soon as we had finished work, we went home.